Arduino UNO

What is Arduino UNO?

The Arduino UNO is the best board to get started with electronics and coding. As the name itself has ‘UNO’ embedded in it which means one in Italian. (‘Arduino was developed in Ivrea Institute of Design, Italy).

More Details on Arduino


Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328P (datasheet). The board consist of:

  • 14 digital GPIO pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs),
  • 6 analog inputs,
  • 16 MHz ceramic resonator,
  • USB connection,
  • Power jack (input 7-12 Volts),
  • An ICSP header, and
  • Reset button.

It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. Install the Arduino IDE and write your first LED BLINKING code.

Technical Specification of the Board

Operating Voltage5 Volts
Input Voltage7 – 12 Volts
DC Current per I/O Pin20 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin50 mA

Memory of Arduino Uno

Arduino Uno has 3 different memory for specific purpose.

  1. Flash Memory: All the code which are burned (installed) in the Arduino Uno Board are stored here. Whenever we plug the power to the board, the program is executed from here. We can only burn (install) one program at a time in a micro-controller.
  2. SRAM: SRAM stands for ‘Static Random Access Memory’. All the manipulations and calculations are performed here. It is the executive memory in Arduino.
  3. EEPROM: EEPROM stands for ‘Electronic Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory’. It is an optional allocation which can store value as per user’s choice.
Flash Memory32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
Clock Speed16 MHz
  • A bootloader is a small piece of code installed in the micro-controller that allows installing new firmware without the need of an external programmer.
  • A Clock Speed of 16 MHz means it can execute up to 16 million instructions per second. Basically clock speed/frequency means the rate at which a processor can complete a processing cycle.

Dimensions of Arduino Uno Board

  • Length: 68.6 mm
  • Width: 53.4 mm
  • Weight: 25 g

General pin functions of Board

  • LED: a built-in LED driven by digital pin 13.
  • VIN: The input voltage to the Arduino board when it is using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source).
  • 5V: This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied
  • 3V3: A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. The maximum current draw is 50 mA.
  • GND: Ground pins.
  • IOREF: This pin on the Arduino board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. A properly configured shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the appropriate power source, or enable voltage translators on the outputs to work with the 5V or 3.3V.
  • Reset: Used to reset the board.

Special Function Pins of Board

  • Serial / UART: pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data.
  • External interrupts: pins 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
  • PWM (pulse-width modulation): pins 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Can provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function.
  • SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface): pins 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), and 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library.
  • TWI (two-wire interface) / I²C: pin SDA (A4) and pin SCL (A5). Support TWI communication using the Wire library.
  • AREF (analog reference): Reference voltage for the analog inputs.

Get started with Arduino: Arduino | Led Blinking | Serial Monitor

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